In sixth grade, students are aware of the author's craft. They are able to adjust their purpose, pace and strategies according to difficulty and/or type of text. Students continue to reflect on their skills and adjust their comprehension and vocabulary strategies to become better readers. Students discuss, reflect, and respond, using evidence from text, to a wide variety of literary genres and informational text. Students read for pleasure and choose books based on personal preference, topic, genre, theme, or author.
EALR 1: The student understands and uses different skills and strategies to read.
Note: Each grade-level expectation assumes the student is reading grade-level text. Since reading is a process, some grade-level indicators and evidence of learning apply to multiple grade-levels. What changes is the text complexity as students move through the grade levels.
Component 1.2 Use vocabulary (word meaning) strategies to comprehend text.
1.2.1 Understand and apply dictionary skills and other reference skills.
• Use dictionaries, thesauruses, and glossaries to find or confirm word meanings, pronunciations, syllabication, synonyms, antonyms, parts of speech, and/or clarify shades of meaning.
• Use text evidence to verify meaning from reference source.
1.2.2 Apply a variety of strategies to comprehend words and ideas in complex text.
• Use word origins to determine the meaning of unknown words.
• Use abstract, derived root words, prefixes, and suffixes from Greek and Latin to analyze the meaning of complex words (e.g., process, procession).
• Use structural analysis and concept-building vocabulary strategies to understand new words and concepts in informational/expository text and literary/narrative text.
• Use prior knowledge, the text, context clues, and graphic features of text to predict, clarify, and/or expand word meanings and concepts.
• Self-correct, re-read, read on, and/or slow down to gain meaning of unknown words in informational/expository text and literary/narrative text.
Component 1.3 Build vocabulary through wide reading.
1.3.1 Understand and apply new vocabulary.
• Integrate new vocabulary from informational/expository text and literary/narrative text (including text from a variety of cultures and communities) into written and oral communication.
1.3.2 Understand and apply content/academic vocabulary critical to the meaning of text. W
• Identify and define content area vocabulary critical to the meaning of the text and use that knowledge to interpret the text.
• Identify words that have different meanings in different content areas and determine the correct meaning from the context (e.g., property in science or social studies).
• Select, from multiple choices, the meaning of words or phrases identified in the text.
• Use new vocabulary in oral and written communication.
Component 1.4 Apply word recognition skills and strategies to read fluently.
1.4.2 Apply fluency to enhance comprehension.
• Read aloud grade-level informational/expository text and literary/narrative text accurately, using appropriate pacing, phrasing, and expression.
• Read aloud unpracticed grade-level text with fluency in a range of 145-155+ words correct per minute.
1.4.3 Apply different reading rates to match text.
• Adjust reading rate by speeding up or slowing down based on purpose (e.g., pleasure, informational reading, task-oriented reading), text level of difficulty, form, and style.
EALR 2: The student understands the meaning of what is read.
Component 2:1 Demonstrate evidence of reading comprehension.
2.1.3 Apply comprehension monitoring strategies during and after reading: determine importance using theme, main idea, and supporting details in grade-level informational/expository text and/or literary/narrative text. W
• State both literal and/or inferred main ideas and provide supporting text-based details.
• State the theme/message and supporting details in culturally relevant literary/narrative text.
• Choose, from multiple choices, a title that best fits the selection and provide details from the text to support the choice.
• Select, from multiple choices, a sentence that best states the theme or main idea of a story, poem, or selection.
• Organize theme, main idea and supporting details into a self-created graphic organizer to enhance comprehension of text.
2.1.4 Apply comprehension monitoring strategies before, during, and after reading: use prior knowledge. W
• Connect current issues, previous information and experiences to characters, events, and information within and across culturally relevant text(s).
• Activate prior knowledge about a topic and organize information into a graphic organizer to aid in comprehension of text.
2.1.5 Apply comprehension monitoring strategies before, during, and after reading: predict and infer. W
• Make, confirm, and revise prediction based on prior knowledge and evidence from the text.
• Cite passages from text to confirm or defend predictions and inferences.
• Select, from multiple choices, a prediction or inference that could be made from the text (e.g., what the character will do next, what will happen to a character because of an event, what will happen because of an action).
• Organize information to support a prediction or inference in a self-created graphic organizer to enhance comprehension of text.
2.1.6 Apply comprehension monitoring strategies to understand fiction, nonfiction, informational, and task-oriented text: monitor for meaning, create mental images, and generate and answer questions.
• Monitor for meaning by identifying where and why comprehension was lost and use comprehension-repair strategies to regain meaning.
• Generate and answer questions about the text before, during, and after reading to aid comprehension.
• Use questioning strategies to comprehend text.
• Organize images and information into a self-created graphic organizer to enhance comprehension of text.
• Use pre-, during, and after-reading tools designed to activate and record prior knowledge to understand text (e.g., semantic mapping, anticipation guide).
2.1.7 Apply comprehension monitoring strategies during and after reading: summarize grade-level informational/expository text and literary/narrative text. W
• Create a summary including the main idea and the most important text-based facts, details, and/or ideas from informational/expository text.
• Summarize the plot/message in culturally relevant literary/narrative text.
• Select, from multiple choices, a sentence that best summarizes the story or selection.
• Organize summary information for informational/expository text and/or literary/narrative text into a self-created graphic organizer to enhance text comprehension.
Component 2.2 Understand and apply knowledge of text components to comprehend text.
2.2.1 Apply understanding of time, order, and/or sequence to aid comprehension of text.
• Explain the use of foreshadowing to convey meaning in literary/narrative text.
• Explain the use of steps in a process to convey meaning in an informational/expository text (e.g., how to make pottery, steps in the oil refinery process).
2.2.2 Apply understanding of printed and electronic text features to locate information and comprehend text. W
• Locate information using grade-level appropriate text features.
• Interpret and draw conclusions from grade-level appropriate text features such as maps, charts, tables, and graphs, etc. (e.g., given a map of the world, draw a conclusion about why early civilizations thrived where they did).
• Use organizational features and electronic sources (such as headings and numberings, CD-ROM, internet, pull-down menus, key word searches, and icons) to access information.
• Select, from multiple choices, the purpose of a specific text feature and/or information learned from a text feature.
• Explain how specific text features help you understand a selection (e.g., how a chapter heading helps you think about the chapter, how boldface or italics signals a new term that can be found in the glossary).
2.2.3 Understand and analyze story elements. W
• Use multiple sources of information from the text (e.g., character’s own thoughts/words, what others say about the character, and how others react to the character) to describe how a character changes over time or how the character’s action might contribute to the problem.
• Identify the major actions that define the plot and how actions lead to conflict or resolution.
• Explain the influence of setting on character and plot.
• Identify the point of view used (first, third, or omniscient point of view) in a story.
• Compare and contrast the same conflict from the point of view of two different characters.
• Identify the stated themes in text and support with evidence from the text.
• Identify common recurring themes in books by the same or different authors and support with evidence from the text.
• Select, from multiple choices, words or sentences that best describe specific story elements from the story, selection, or poem (e.g., character, setting, conflict).
2.2.4 Apply understanding of text organizational structures.
• Recognize and use previously taught text organizational structures (simple listing, sequential order, description, comparison and contrast, chronological order, cause and effect, and order of importance) to aid comprehension.
• Recognize and use text written in the text organizational structures of process/procedural to find and organize information and comprehend text.
Component 2.3 Expand comprehension by analyzing, interpreting, and synthesizing information and ideas in literary and informational text.
2.3.1 Analyze informational/expository text and literary/narrative text for similarities and differences and cause and effect relationships. W
• Find similarities and differences within and between texts using text-based evidence (e.g., character’s point of view in poetry and narrative; the author’s feelings and the poet’s feelings; cultural perspectives in a magazine article and an editorial).
• Select, from multiple choices, a sentence that tells how two text elements are alike or different (e.g., character, setting, information).
• Interpret cause and effect relationships within a informational/expository text or literary/narrative text using evidence from the text (e.g., how the time period [setting] of a novel determines a character’s behavior, how a situation affected a character, what events either caused or resulted from a problem, or how one situation determines another such as the flow of the Nile dictating early life in Egypt).
• Select, from multiple choices, a sentence that explains or describes cause and effect relationships (e.g., what caused something to happen, what was the result of an action).
2.3.2 Analyze sources for information appropriate to a specific topic or for a specific purpose.
• Select appropriate resources such as an atlas, newspaper, magazine, memo, directory, or schedule to locate information on a specific topic or for a specific purpose.
• Sort information gathered from various sources by topic and decide on the utility of the information for a specific purpose.
2.3.3 Understand the functions (to make the story more interesting and convey a message) of literary devices. W
• Recognize previously taught literary devices (simile, personification, humor, metaphor, idiom, imagery, exaggeration, and dialogue) and explain how they make the story more interesting and/or convey a message.
• Identify literary devices such as irony and sarcasm and explain how they make the story more interesting and/or convey a message.
• Select, from multiple choices, a sentence from the story/poem/selection that is an example of a specific literary device.
Component 2.4 Think critically and analyze author’s use of language, style, purpose, and perspective in literary and informational text.
2.4.1 Apply the skills of drawing conclusions, providing a response, and expressing insights about informational/expository text and literary/narrative text. W
• Draw a conclusion from grade-level text (e.g., what is the most important idea the author is trying to make in the story/poem/selection, how the selection might be useful to someone who wanted to do something related) and provide details to support the answer.
• Select, from multiple choices, a statement that best represents the most important conclusion that may be drawn from the selection.
2.4.2 Analyze an author’s style of writing, including language choice, to achieve the author’s purpose and influence an audience. W
• Identify and explain the author’s purpose.
• Explain how author’s use of word choice, sentence structure and length, and/or literary devices contributes to imagery, suggests a mood, or otherwise influences an audience.
2.4.3 Understand how to verify content validity. W
• Identify and explain when an author uses opinion to make a point.
• Verify facts by checking sources for date of publication, bias, and accuracy.
2.4.4 Analyze the effectiveness of the author’s tone and use of persuasive devices for a target audience. W
• Determine the author’s target audience(s) and cite examples of details, facts, and/or arguments that appeal to that audience.
• Interpret the author’s tone and support the answer with text-based evidence.
• Describe the intended effects of persuasive devices and propaganda techniques.
2.4.5 Understand how to generalize/extend information beyond the text to another text or to a broader idea or concept. W
• Generalize about common themes, conflicts, and situations after reading multiple texts.
• Explain how information in a text could be used to understand a similar situation or concept in another text and cite text-based examples (e.g., historical fiction about Egypt helps understand the role of the pharaohs).
2.4.6 Analyze ideas and concepts in multiple texts. W
• Find the similarities and differences in how an idea or concept is expressed in multiple texts.
• Compare the feeling of the authors and/or character as expressed in multiple texts.
• Select, from multiple choices, a sentence that tells how two pieces of information are alike or different.
2.4.7 Analyze the reasoning and ideas underlying an author’s perspective, beliefs, and assumptions. W
• Determine author’s perspective (e.g., opinion about an idea, stand on an issue, perspective on a topic) and cite supporting informational/expository text and literary/narrative text details or facts.
• Infer and explain the author’s beliefs and assumptions, citing text-based reasons for choice (e.g., describe an author’s background and beliefs and explain how they influence the author’s perspective).
• Select, from multiple choices, a sentence that describes the author’s or character’s reasoning or problem with the reasoning.
EALR 3: The student reads different materials for a variety of purposes.
Component 3.1 Read to learn new information.
3.1.1 Analyze appropriateness of a variety of resources and use them to perform a specific task or investigate a topic.
• Locate, select, and use a variety of library, web-based, and Internet materials appropriate to the task or best suited to investigate the topic.
• Use information from various sources to investigate a topic (e.g., read newspaper want ads, websites, catalogs, yellow pages to decide which products or services to buy).
• Follow multi-step written directions (e.g., read a manual, complete a project or assignment).
Component 3.2 Read to perform a task.
3.2.2 Apply understanding of a variety of functional documents.
• Locate and use functional documents (e.g., newspapers, magazines, schedules, promotional materials).
Component 3.4 Read for literary experience in a variety of genres.
3.4.2 Understand and analyze a variety of literary genres.
• Examine and explain various sub-genres of literary fiction based upon their characteristics.
• Respond to literature written in a variety of genres based on given criteria (e.g., compare and contrast story elements in texts written in different genres).
3.4.3 Analyze literature from a variety of cultures or historical periods for relationships and recurring themes.
• Explain similarities and differences within and among multiple cultures or historical periods citing text-based evidence (e.g., marriage customs or family vs. community responsibilities).
• Identify and discuss recurring themes in literature (e.g., identity, struggle).
EALR 4: The student sets goals and evaluates progress to improve reading.
Component 4.1 Assess reading strengths and need for improvement.
4.1.2 Evaluate reading progress and apply strategies for setting grade-level appropriate reading goals.
• Set reading goals and create a plan to meet those goals.
• Monitor progress toward implementing the plan, making adjustments and corrections as needed.
Component 4.2 Develop interests and share reading experiences.
4.2.1 Evaluate books and authors to share common literary experiences.
• Recommend books to others and explain the reason for the recommendation.
• Discuss common reading selections and experiences with others.